Common Types of Speech and Language Disorders:
1. Students with language disorders may demonstrate difficulty understanding what is said or written. Some students with language disorders also have difficulty expressing themselves verbally or in writing.
2. Students with articulation disorders substitute or leave out speech sounds when pronouncing words. They may also mix the order of speech sounds when stringing them together to produce a word or sentence. Not only is it harder to understand the student with an articulation disorder, but the student may be more likely to develop problems with reading and spelling.
3. Students with voice disorders include inappropriate volume (too loud or too soft), pitch (too high or too low), quality (hoarseness or breathiness), or the inability to make sound (aphonia).
4. Students with stuttering (disfluency) behaviors indicate there is difficulty with the timing or rhythm of speech. There may also be tension or secondary behaviors (such at head movements) present.
5. Students with pragmatic language disorders have difficulties developing and maintaining peer relationships, demonstrating conversational reciprocity, and demonstrating understanding of personal perspectives.
Service delivery models vary, and can range from traditional pull-out services, to support within the classroom (integrated support), consultative support, and interventions within the RTI (Response to Intervention) framework.
The referral process to receive speech and language services goes through several stages. A child may initially be identified as having a potential speech or language disorder during a pre-school or Kindergarten, grade level screening, classroom observation, or from a referral by a parent or teacher to the District 101 problem-solving team. Services may be provided on a short-term basis to determine how the student responds to the interventions. If the student is not demonstrating adequate progress given the short-term intervention, the parents will be invited to attend a meeting to determine if formal evaluation is warranted. If a formal evaluation is determined to be necessary, parental consent will be requested. Once the evaluation is completed, the educational team, including parents, will meet to discuss the results and to determine a plan of action. The direction of the plan will be dependent upon the evaluation results. In some cases, students may be recommended for speech and language support under special education. When students receive formal speech and language support, progress is monitored and formally presented to parents on a quarterly basis. There will also be an annual review meeting which serves to review progress and determine further needs for the following school year. Every three years, the student is eligible for a re-evaluation to determine if needs continue to require support through special education.